Las normas relacionadas con la protección ambiental abordan gran parte del ámbito del derecho público, civil y penal. En la actualidad se ha integrado el tema de sustentabilidad, para referir todas las opciones de disminuir las consecuencias del patrón de consumo y producción sobre el medio ambiente.
La política ambiental alemana ha sido, desde la década de los noventa, ejemplar en la búsqueda por alcanzar los objetivos de reducción de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero.
El tema de cambio climático es un problema mundial. En los países en desarrollo, como sucede en América Latina, muchas de las decisiones en torno a los recursos naturales se han visto influenciadas por grupos con intereses económicos sin responsabilidad social o ambiental.
Standards related to environmental protection address much of the public, civil and criminal law domain. Currently, the issue of sustainability has been integrated to refer to all options to reduce the consequences of the consumption and production pattern on the environment.
Since the 1990s, German environmental policy has been exemplary in the quest to achieve the goals of reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
The issue of climate change is a global problem. In developing countries, as is the case in Latin America, many of the decisions regarding natural resources have been influenced by groups with economic interests without social or environmental responsibility.
The economic crisis, the collapse of oil prices and the change in the energy matrix pose a danger to the oil industry. Low profitability is putting pressure on the big oil companies to change their energy production, and the environmental cost of the sector is gigantic.
The large global oil companies have begun to look at clean energy as a business alternative, as well as to recognize the need to seek new ways of profitability and to maintain the environment.
However, the evidence that the oil industry's efforts to enter green energy are not enough. The disproportion is still great if one compares the total investment with that invested in clean energy, which is greater than 20%.
The international commitments of the United Nations Agenda 2030 have forced governments to rethink public mobility policy around the world. The change in public transport systems to electric units has put on the table the importance of China as an exporter of these units and the demand for global oil demand in the long term.
Of the total number of electric buses in the world, 95% are in China. From 2011, the change of energy matrix is a public goal, becoming the main producer and consumer of electric vehicles in the world. In Latin America, the use of electric buses is still incipient.
This energy shift will be the new impetus for the growth of the global economy in the 21st century. It will also be an issue of confrontation between the United States and China; and of Latin America with the United States.
The change in the energy matrix led by China is not limited to the generation of electricity through clean energy. The market for electric cars, buses and motorcycles is booming. Since 2016 China is the country with the highest domestic sales of electric cars and by 2019 it is the largest exporter of electric cars, motorcycles and buses in the world.
There is an incipient process of change of the automotive plant in Latin America essentially led by China and although small it is accelerating.
In Latin America, the electric car market is emerging. To reduce the carbon footprint, the governments of Latin American countries implemented measures to stimulate the consumption of electric cars
The change in the energy matrix plays a fundamental role in the development of the trade war. Photovoltaic cells and solar panels have been subject to various US sanctions as a tool against Chinese expansion in this sector.
The Chinese government, on the other hand, has launched a plan to generate renewable energies on a massive scale, and considers innovation and the search for alternative energy sources as strategic emerging industries.
In Latin America there are large projects such as Cauchari in Jujuy, Argentina, in Chihuahua, Mexico, as well as in Chile and other countries
The energy transition is a process of structural change of energy sources. China transits its energy matrix in electricity generation by means of energy called clean, such as: solar, wind, hydroelectric, cellulose and even nuclear.
Electricity generation in the Asian country is given, still, mainly by coal. However, solar energy has average annual rates of 42% from 1995 to 2004, and from 2006 onwards to 55% average; and the hydraulics presents rates of 8% and 11% respectively.
The growing expansion of the solar panel trade, and investments in the hydroelectric and electrical distribution sectors, to Latin America give the signal that it is interested in the region as a space to dispute the US energy trade and displace gasoline and oil