On 23 June 2016, the people of the United Kingdom (UK) decided to leave the European Union (EU) in a referendum by a margin of less than 2%. After more than four years of negotiations, the Brexit transition period ended on 1 January 2021. The UK's exit from the European Union implies changes in the structure of the world economy.
During the Brexit negotiations, in parallel it signed 59 trade agreements with non-European countries, including the UK-Japan agreement. In Latin America, it also reaffirmed the partners it had via the EU. A key element in the Brexit free trade agreement is that it did not incorporate financial services.
The project of British reindustrialisation and economic independence from Europe, via Brexit, has encountered significant limits in the very high financialisation of its economy, its deep trade dependence and its lack of productive competitiveness.